Adjectives ending in ed and ing
This post looks at adjectives ending in ed or ing. For example, look at the following sentences. Can you see the difference between the two sentences? They both contain an adjective from the verb ‘confuse’ but the endings are different.
English learners are often confused by adjectives.
English learners often think that adjectives are confusing.
Confused and confusing are both adjectives. However, they are used in different situations. This post explains when to use ‘ed’ and when to use ‘ing’.
I was bored. The film was really boring.
Below is a list of some of the most common adjectives that can take either the ‘ed’ or ‘ing’ form.
VERB ‘ed’ adjective ‘ing’ adjective
aggravate aggravated aggravating
alarm alarmed alarming
amaze amazed amazing
amuse amused amusing
annoy annoyed annoying
astonish astonished astonishing
bore bored boring
challenge challenged challenging
confuse confused confusing
convince convinced convincing
depress depressed depressing
disappoint disappointed disappointing
disgust disgusted disgusting
embarrass embarrassed embarrassing
encourage encouraged encouraging
excite excited exciting
exhaust exhausted exhausting
frighten frightened frightening
frustrate frustrated frustrating
interest interested interesting
please pleased pleasing
relax relaxed relaxing
satisfy satisfied satisfying
shock shocked shocking
terrify terrified terrifying
tire tired tiring
worry worried worrying
Adjective + ‘ed’
These describe how a person feels.
He often felt tired and depressed so he made an appointment to see the doctor.
The little boy was terrified of clowns.
I am disappointed that you can’t come to the wedding because I was looking forward to seeing you there.
It was the best holiday ever! I felt totally relaxed all week.
I’m so frustrated with my boss.
Adjective + ‘ing’
These describe the thing or person that makes you feel the emotion.
He told his doctor that his work was really tiring and depressing.
The little boy thinks clowns are terrifying.
You can’t come to the wedding? That is so disappointing . I was looking forward to seeing you there.
It was the best holiday ever! It was so relaxing.
My boss is so frustrating.